Rita Rafajlovičová


From Phrases to Clauses and Sentences

A student’s grammar book and workbook



ISBN 978-80-555-1930-2


Návrat  Domovská stránka  Tiráž


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Titulný list
  
3
3
7

  

8
  
Linguistic Forms and Syntactic Functions
8

  

14
  
Grammatical Hierarchy
14
  
Phrases
14
2.1  
Noun Phrase (NP)
15
2.2  
Verb Phrase (VP)
16
2.2.1  
Finite VP
16
2.2.2  
Non‐finite VP
17
2.3  
Adjective Phrase (Adj.P)
17
2.4  
Adverb Phrase (Adv.P)
18
2.5  
Prepositional Phrase (PP)
18
2.6  
Other types of phrases
18
  
EXERCISES 9‐14
20

  

23
  
Clauses
23
3.1  
Clause Elements
24
3.1.1  
Subject (S)
24
3.1.2  
Predicate
26
3.1.3  
Object
27
3.1.3.1  
Direct object (Od)
27
3.1.3.2  
Indirect object (Oi)
28
3.1.3.3  
Prepositional object (Op)
28
3.1.4  
Complement (C)
29
3.1.4.1  
Subject Complement (Cs)
29
3.1.4.2  
Object Complement (Co)
30
3.1.5  
Adverbial (A)
31
3.1.5.1  
Adjuncts
31
3.1.5.2  
Disjuncts
32
3.1.5.3  
Conjuncts
32
3.2  
Basic Clause Patterns
33
3.2.1  
Variations on Clause Patterns
34
  
EXERCISES 15‐29
36

  

42
  
Classification of Clauses
42
4.1  
Independent and Dependent Clauses
42
4.2  
Finite, Non‐Finite, and Verbless clauses
43
4.3  
Clauses Classified by their Function (in the sentence)
44
4.4  
Major Types of Independent Clauses (Discourse Functions)
45
4.4.1  
Punctuation of Independent clauses
46
  
EXERCISES 30‐41
48

  

54
  
Clause Combining and Types of Relationship between Clauses
54
5.1  
Clause Links
54
5.2  
Coordination
55
5.2.1  
Coordinators
56
5.2.1.1  
Coordinating Conjunctions
56
5.2.1.2  
Correlative Conjunctions
58
5.2.1.3  
Linking Adverbials (Conjunctive Adverbs)
59
5.2.2  
Punctuation between Independent Clauses
60
5.3  
Subordination
61
5.3.1  
Subordinators
63
5.3.1.1  
Other Indicators of subordination
65
  
EXERCISES 42‐53
66

  

73
  
Types of Dependent (Subordinate) Clauses
73
6.1  
Syntactic and Semantic Functions of Dependent Clauses
74
  
EXERCISES 54‐57
75
6.2  
Nominal Clauses
78
6.2.1  
That‐ clauses
78
6.2.2  
Wh‐ clauses
80
6.2.2.1  
Wh‐interrogative clauses
81
6.2.2.2  
Yes/no interrogative clauses
81
6.2.2.3  
Nominal‐relative clauses
82
6.2.2.4  
Exclamative clauses
83
6.2.3  
to‐Infinitive clauses
84
6.2.4  
Ing clauses
85
6.3  
Nominal Clauses and the Language of reporting
93
6.3.1  
Indirect Questions, Exclamations, Directives
97
  
EXERCISES 70‐80
99
6.4  
Relative Clauses
107
6.4.1  
Restrictive and Non‐restrictive Relative Clauses
109
6.4.2  
Reduction of Relative Clauses into Non‐finite Structures
110
  
EXERCISES 81‐94
113
6.5  
Adverbial Clauses
120
6.5.1  
Clauses of Time
122
6.5.1.1  
Reduction of Adverbial Clauses of Time into Modifying Phrases
122
6.5.2  
Clauses of Place
123
6.5.3  
Manner Clauses
124
6.5.4  
Reason and Cause Clauses
124
6.5.4.1  
Expressing Cause and Effect Relationship in Non‐finite clauses
125
6.5.5  
Result Clauses
125
6.5.6  
Purpose Clauses
126
6.5.7  
Conditional Clauses
126
6.5.7.1  
Negative condition
130
6.5.7.2  
Alternative conditions
131
6.5.7.3  
Universal Conditional‐concessive Clauses
131
6.5.8  
Clauses of Concession and Contrast
131
6.5.9  
Clauses of Similarity and Comparison
133
6.5.10  
Other Types of Adverbial Clauses
133

  

145
  
The Sentence
145
7.1  
Sentence Types according to Structure
146

  

153
  
Thematic and Information Structures of the Clause
153
8.1  
Theme and Emphasis
153
8.2  
Motivation for the use of ‘Thematic Systems of the Clause’
155
8.2.1  
The Given‐New Principle
155
8.2.2  
The Principle of Clause‐Initial Topic (topic preservation)
156
8.2.3  
The Principle of End‐Weight
156
8.3  
Motivation for the Selection of particular Thematic
157
  
Constructions
157
8.3.1  
Thematic Re‐ordering and Subject‐Complement Switching
157
8.3.2  
Passivization
159
8.3.3  
Extraposition
159
8.3.4  
Existential “there”
160
8.3.4.1  
Existential Sentences with Relative Clauses
160
8.3.5  
Cleft Sentences
161
8.3.5.1  
It‐ clefts
161
8.3.5.2  
Wh‐ clefts
161
  
EXERCISES 120‐126
163

168




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